Water Treatment

Novel Wastewater Treatment

Water is worth more than gold and more crucial for survival above all other resources on earth. About 80% of water is used in industrial sectors. Water use increased 6-fold in the last century, which is more than twice the rate of population growth during the 21st century with the world population of 6.8 billion, with the total home use of approx. 4.6 x1011 liters/day. And yet, over one billion people do not have enough safe water to drink, and therefore will never live a healthy life. The truth is that the world may not exactly be running out of water, but it is running out of clean water! In which 90% of sewage and 70% of industrial wastes in third world countries discharge untreated water into rivers, streams and coastal waters.

ABR provides PhytoPhage-solutions for cleanup water pollution and recycling of commercial and dark grey industrial water and industrial wastewater streams for agriculture and recreational water uses. This technology is inexpensive, environmentally friendly, and can reduce waterborne pathogens and carcinogenic chemicals (aluminum; fluoride and chlorine) in water.

More information regarding the wastewater treatment can be found at: Jassim S. A. A. et al. 2016. Bacteriophage biocontrol in wastewater treatment. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 32(4):70. doi: 10.1007/s11274-016-2028-1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26941243

Cyanobacteria (Blue-Green Algae) Blooms

Freshwater cyanobacterial blooms result in the deterioration of water quality with adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems and can have significant economic impacts due to human health threats along with their negative impact on aquaculture, recreation and tourism. The economic losses worldwide are associated with cyanobacteria harmful algae blooms (CyanoHAB), and are estimated to exceed billions of dollars over the next several decades. The incidence of CyanoHABs globally is increasing, despite many of the strict control measures implemented in industrial nations and many other countries to reduce the excessive levels of the phosphorus and fertilizers to reach into marine and freshwater environments. In addition, many chemical agents have been used but were unsuccessful to control the HABs.

ABR has innovated a protocol that can rapidly detect small numbers of cyanobacterial cells, and it also effectively controls and reduces cyanoHABs in marine and freshwater environments. The system is based on using smart lytic cyanophages with unprecedented automatic control systems.

More information regarding the CyanoHAB and using smart lytic cyanophages can be found at:

Jassim S. A. A. et al. 2017 “Bacteriophages: Practical Applications for Nature’s Biocontrol:


Chapter 6: Bacteriophage Biocontrol: Deployment in Aquatic Ecosystems

Jassim S. A. A. et al. 2013. Impact of external forces on cyanophage–host interactions in aquatic ecosystems. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 29(10),1751–1762. DOI 10.1007/s11274-013-1358-5. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23619821) ; http://www.jlakes.org/ch/web/s11274-013-1358-5.pdf

Cleanup Oil Spills

An oil spill is a release of the liquid, petroleum hydrocarbon, into the environment due to human activity and is a form of pollution. Oil spills include releases of crude oil from tankers, offshore platforms, drilling rigs, pipelines and wells, as well as spills of refined petroleum products (such as gasoline, diesel) and their by-products. These could also include heavier fuels used by large ships such as bunker fuel, or the spill of any oily substance or waste oil. Spills may take months or even years to clean up. Oil also enters the marine environment from natural oil seeps. Cleanup and recovery from an oil spill is difficult and depends upon many factors, including the type of oil spilled, the temperature of the water (affecting evaporation and biodegradation), and the types of shorelines and beaches involved.

The use of chemical dispersants is the current cleanup method used. Chemical dispersants pull apart oil particles suspended in water, reducing the oil slick to droplets that can be degraded by naturally occurring bacteria which could take years. However, because the chemical properties of leaked oil will change over time, dispersants may lose their ability to break apart the oil. There are also concerns about the dispersants themselves, which are also toxic, damaging the environment.

ABR have invented an inexpensive biodegradable environmentally friendly formula that is hydrophobic and oleophilic, but not absorbent, in which can be sprayed by boats, aircraft and workers on the shore. It would bind to oil without becoming waterlogged. After spraying the powder material onto the slick, the powder will immediately form a thin resilient layer under the slick, separating the oil completely from the water. Afterwards it’s pretty easy to suction and collect the oil from the top layer and return it back into a cargo ship or tanker, leaving the water unharmed. The used material can be recovered by skimmers from the water surface and be reused.